Launch of the satellite

Launch of BELINTERSAT-1 satellite into geostationary orbit

A geostationary orbit (GEO) is a circular orbit located above the equator of the Earth (0° latitude), in which an artificial satellite orbits the planet at an angular velocity equal to the angular velocity of the Earth’s rotation around its axis. In the horizontal coordinate system, the direction to the satellite changes neither in azimuth nor in height above the horizon: the satellite “hangs” motionless. Therefore a satellite dish once pointed at a satellite will always remain pointed at that satellite. Geostationary orbit is a kind of geosynchronous orbit and is used for placing artificial satellites (in particular, telecommunication satellites) on it.
The presented video material was created based on the simulation of the BELINTERSAT-1 spacecraft launch to the 51.5 E position in the geostationary orbit. The satellite model and the simulation of the flight were created by the specialists of the ballistic and navigational support service of the Central Control Center.

Low Earth Orbit (LEO) is a space orbit around the Earth that has an altitude above the planet's surface ranging from 160 km (a period of about 88 minutes) to 2,000 km (a period of about 127 minutes). Objects at lower altitudes than 160 km are significantly affected by the atmosphere and are themselves unstable. All human spaceflight has been either in LEO or suborbital. At the moment, all space stations and most of the artificial Earth satellites were or are in LEO.

The Middle Earth Orbit (MEO), sometimes called the intermediate circular orbit, is an area of space above the low Earth orbit (altitude 2,000 kilometres) and below the geostationary orbit (altitude 35,786 kilometres).

The most common satellites in this orbit are navigation, communications and geodetic satellites. Typically, the altitude is around 20,200 kilometres, providing an orbital period of 12 hours (used in particular by the Global Positioning System). GLONASS (altitude 19,100 kilometres) and Galileo (altitude 23,222 kilometres) satellites also use medium Earth orbit. Communications satellites covering the North and South Poles are also in LEO.

A geosynchronous orbit (GSO) is an orbit of a satellite orbiting the Earth in which the orbital period is equal to the stellar period of the Earth's rotation - 23 hr. 56 min. 4.1 sec. A special case is a geostationary orbit - a circular orbit lying in the plane of the Earth's equator, following which a satellite (for the Earth's "observer") is in fact fixed. A geostationary orbit has a radius of 42,164 km with the centre coinciding with the centre of the Earth, which equals an altitude of 35,786 km above sea level.

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